Ganges Fluss Gangesebene
Der über Kilometer lange. Ganges vom Himalaja zum Indischen Ozean. Einzigartiges Biotop, heilige Stätte und tödliche Kloake – der indische Fluss ist alles in einem. Leichenteile, Tierkadaver und Fäkalien: Warum es so schwer ist, Indiens heiligsten Fluss zu säubern. Der Ganges ist der bedeutendste der heiligen Flüsse des indischen Subkontinents. Das Wasser soll ein Unsterblichkeitselexier enthalten und. Der Ganges. Kein Fluss ist so heilig, geliebt und verehrt wie der Ganges. Gleichzeitig gibt es kaum ein dreckigeres Wasser. Ein Kontrast.
Der Ganges ist der bedeutendste der heiligen Flüsse des indischen Subkontinents. Das Wasser soll ein Unsterblichkeitselexier enthalten und. Leichenteile, Tierkadaver und Fäkalien: Warum es so schwer ist, Indiens heiligsten Fluss zu säubern. Der über Kilometer lange.
Ganges Fluss VideoGanges: Indiens Fluss des Lebens 1/3 Philosophie, Existentialismus, Learn more here usw. An seinem linken Ufer liegt Kolkata früher: Kalkutta. Der Ganges ist der Lebensraum des seltenen und wenig erforschten Gangesdelfins source, des Gangeskrokodils sowie des Gangeshaisüber den ebenfalls nur wenig bekannt ist. Ein derartiger Anblick hat sich mir noch nirgendwo auf der Welt ergeben. Doch selbst dann kommt die Familie mit der Asche nach Varanasi, um ganges fluss im Ganges zu verstreuen. Um dir einen Überblick über kaufen wow spielzeit zahlreichen Ghats read more verschaffen, bietet sich eine Ganga River Tour an. Von daher ist es nicht verwunderlich, dass die Inder ihre Verstorbenen, nachdem diese zuvor continue reading wurden, dem Wasser des heiligen Flusses überlassen. Der Bs liv und maddie Gerichtshof des nordindischen Bundesstaats Uttarakhand ordnete im März an, read article der Ganges und sein Hauptzufluss Yamunaden Status einer tv total online sehen Person erhalten sollen.
Ganges Fluss VideoGanges: Indiens Fluss des Lebens 1/3
Human development, mostly agriculture, has replaced nearly all of the original natural vegetation of the Ganges basin.
Bengal tigers survive only in the Sundarbans area of the Ganges Delta. Many types of birds are found throughout the basin, such as myna , Psittacula parakeets, crows , kites , partridges , and fowls.
Ducks and snipes migrate across the Himalayas during the winter, attracted in large numbers to wetland areas.
The great Indian bustard Ardeotis nigriceps and lesser florican Sypheotides indicus are considered globally threatened.
The natural forest of the upper Gangetic Plain has been so thoroughly eliminated it is difficult to assign a natural vegetation type with certainty.
There are a few small patches of forest left, and they suggest that much of the upper plains may have supported a tropical moist deciduous forest with sal Shorea robusta as a climax species.
A similar situation is found in the lower Gangetic Plain, which includes the lower Brahmaputra River. The lower plains contain more open forests, which tend to be dominated by Bombax ceiba in association with Albizzia procera , Duabanga grandiflora , and Sterculia vilosa.
There are early seral forest communities that would eventually become dominated by the climax species sal Shorea robusta , if forest succession was allowed to proceed.
In most places forests fail to reach climax conditions due to human causes. It has been estimated that about fish species live in the entire Ganges drainage, including several endemics.
There are distinct differences between the different sections of the river basin, but Cyprinidae is the most diverse throughout.
Typical genera approaching this altitude are Schizothorax , Tor , Barilius , Nemacheilus and Glyptothorax. The Ganges basin supports major fisheries, but these have declined in recent decades.
In the Allahabad region in the middle section of the basin, catches of carp fell from The Ganges basin is home to about 30 fish species that are listed as threatened with the primary issues being overfishing sometimes illegal , pollution, water abstraction, siltation and invasive species.
The main sections of the Ganges River are home to the gharial Gavialis gangeticus and mugger crocodile Crocodylus palustris , and the delta is home to the saltwater crocodile C.
Among the numerous aquatic and semi-aquatic turtles in the Ganges basin are the northern river terrapin Batagur baska ; only in the lowermost section of the basin , three-striped roofed turtle B.
The river's most famed faunal member is the freshwater Ganges river dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica ,  which has been declared India's national aquatic animal.
This dolphin used to exist in large schools near to urban centres in both the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, but is now seriously threatened by pollution and dam construction.
Their numbers have now dwindled to a quarter of their numbers of fifteen years before, and they have become extinct in the Ganges' main tributaries.
The Ganges river dolphin is one of only five true freshwater dolphins in the world. The other four are the baiji Lipotes vexillifer of the Yangtze River in China, now likely extinct; the Indus River dolphin of the Indus River in Pakistan; the Amazon river dolphin of the Amazon River in South America; and the Araguaian river dolphin not considered a separate species until  of the Araguaia—Tocantins basin in Brazil.
There are several marine dolphins whose ranges include some freshwater habitats, but these five are the only dolphins who live only in freshwater rivers and lakes.
The Tibetan Plateau contains the world's third-largest store of ice. Qin Dahe, the former head of the China Meteorological Administration, said that the recent fast pace of melting and warmer temperatures will be good for agriculture and tourism in the short term; but issued a strong warning:.
Temperatures are rising four times faster than elsewhere in China, and the Tibetan glaciers are retreating at a higher speed than in any other part of the world In the short term, this will cause lakes to expand and bring floods and mudflows In the long run, the glaciers are vital lifelines for Asian rivers, including the Indus and the Ganges.
Once they vanish, water supplies in those regions will be in peril. Many studies have suggested that the climate change will affect the water resources in the Ganges river basin including increased summer monsoon flow, and peak runoff could result in an increased risk of flooding.
After the cremation of the deceased at Varanasi's ghats the bones and ashes are thrown into the Ganges. However, in the past thousands of uncremated bodies were thrown into the Ganges during cholera epidemics, spreading the disease.
Even today, holy men, pregnant women, people with leprosy or chicken pox , people who have been bitten by snakes, people who have committed suicide, the poor, and children under 5 are not cremated at the ghats but are left to float free, in order to decompose in the waters.
In addition, those who cannot afford the large amount of wood needed to incinerate the entire body, leave behind a lot of half burned body parts.
After passing through Varanasi, and receiving 32 streams of raw sewage from the city, the concentration of fecal coliforms in the river's waters rises from 60, to 1.
Between and , Rs. According to one study, . The Ganga Action Plan, which was taken on priority and with much enthusiasm, was delayed for two years.
The expenditure was almost doubled. But the result was not very appreciable. Much expenditure was done over the political propaganda.
The concerning governments and the related agencies were not very prompt to make it a success. The public of the areas was not taken into consideration.
The releasing of urban and industrial wastes in the river was not controlled fully. The flowing of dirty water through drains and sewers were not adequately diverted.
The continuing customs of burning dead bodies, throwing carcasses, washing of dirty clothes by washermen, and immersion of idols and cattle wallowing were not checked.
Very little provision of public latrines was made and the open defecation of lakhs of people continued along the riverside.
All these made the Action Plan a failure. The failure of the Ganga Action Plan, has also been variously attributed to "environmental planning without proper understanding of the human—environment interactions," [d] Indian "traditions and beliefs," [l] "corruption and a lack of technical knowledge" [c] and "lack of support from religious authorities.
In November , the Ganges, alone among India's rivers, was declared a "National River", facilitating the formation of a National Ganga River Basin Authority that would have greater powers to plan, implement and monitor measures aimed at protecting the river.
In March the High Court of Uttarakhand declared the Ganges River a legal "person" , in a move that according to one newspaper, "could help in efforts to clean the pollution-choked rivers.
Recent studies by Indian Council of Medical Research ICMR say that the river is so full of killer pollutants that those living along its banks in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Bengal are more prone to cancer than anywhere else in the country.
Conducted by the National Cancer Registry Programme under the ICMR, the study throws up shocking findings indicating that the river is thick with heavy metals and lethal chemicals that cause cancer.
Nandkumar, the incidence of cancer was highest in the country in areas drained by the Ganges and stated that the problem would be studied deeply and with the findings presented in a report to the health ministry.
Apart from that, many NGOs have came forward to rejuvenate river Ganges. NGT slapped a fine of Rs. Along with ever-increasing pollution, water shortages are getting noticeably worse.
Some sections of the river are already completely dry. To cope with its chronic water shortages, India employs electric groundwater pumps, diesel-powered tankers, and coal-fed power plants.
If the country increasingly relies on these energy-intensive short-term fixes, the whole planet's climate will bear the consequences.
India is under enormous pressure to develop its economic potential while also protecting its environment—something few, if any, countries have accomplished.
What India does with its water will be a test of whether that combination is possible. Illegal mining in the Ganges river bed for stones and sand for construction work has long been a problem in Haridwar district , Uttarakhand, where it touches the plains for the first time.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the river. For other uses, see Ganges disambiguation and Ganga disambiguation.
Major river in southern Asia. Map of the combined drainage basins of the Ganges yellow , Brahmaputra violet and Meghna green.
Main traditions. Vaishnavism Shaivism Shaktism Smartism. Rites of passage. Philosophical schools. Gurus, saints, philosophers.
Other texts. Text classification. Other topics. Main article: Kumbh Mela. Main article: Pollution of the Ganges.
India portal. Although some improvements have been made to the quality of the Ganges's water, many people claim that the GAP has been a major failure.
The environmental lawyer M. Mehta, for example, filed public interest litigation against project, claiming ' GAP has collapsed.
It is also one of the most polluted, primarily from sewage, but also from animal carcasses, human corpses, and soap and other pollutants from bathers.
Indeed, scientists measure fecal coliform levels at thousands of times what is permissible and levels of oxygen in the water are similarly unhealthy.
Renewal efforts have centred primarily on the government-sponsored Ganga Action Plan GAP , started in with the goal of cleaning up the river by Several western-style sewage treatment plants were built along the river, but they were poorly designed, poorly maintained and prone to shut down during the region's frequent power outages.
The GAP has been a colossal failure, and many argue that the river is more polluted now than it was in Leading Indian environmentalists call the plan a complete failure, due to the same problems that have always beset the government: poor planning, corruption, and a lack of technical knowledge.
The river, they say, is more polluted than ever. It was the largest single attempt to clean up a polluted river anywhere in the world and has not achieved any success in terms of preventing pollution load and improvement in water quality of the river.
Failure of the Ganga Action Plan may be directly linked with the environmental planning without proper understanding of the human—environment interactions.
The bibliography of selected environmental research studies on the Ganga River is, therefore, an essentially first step for preserving and maintaining the Ganga River ecosystem in future.
The main source of contamination is organic waste—sewage, trash, food, and human and animal remains.
Around a billion liters of untreated raw sewage are dumped into the Ganges each day, along with massive amounts of agricultural chemicals including DDT , industrial pollutants, and toxic chemical waste from the booming industries along the river.
The level of pollution is now 10, percent higher than the government standard for safe river bathing let alone drinking.
One result of this situation is an increase in waterborne diseases, including cholera, hepatitis, typhoid, and amoebic dysentery. An estimated 80 percent of all health problems and one-third of deaths in India are attributable to waterborne illnesses.
Its relative failure has been blamed on mismanagement, corruption, and technological mistakes, but also on lack of support from religious authorities.
This may well be partly because the Brahmin priests are so invested in the idea of the Ganges' purity and afraid that any admission of its pollution will undermine the central role of the water in ritual, as well as their own authority.
There are many temples along the river, conducting a brisk trade in ceremonies, including funerals, and sometimes also the sale of bottled Ganga jal.
The more traditional Hindu priests still believe that blessing Ganga jal purifies it, although they are now a very small minority in view of the scale of the problem.
They were one of the world's first protected species, given special status under the reign of Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BC.
They're now a critically endangered species, although protected once again by the Indian government and internationally under the CITES convention.
Their numbers have shrunk by 75 per cent over the last 15 years, and they have become extinct in the main tributaries, mainly because of pollution and habitat degradation.
They, in turn, drew their information from an interview conducted by New Scientist with Dr. Hasnain, an Indian glaciologist, who admitted that the view was speculative.
See: "Sifting climate facts from speculation". Thaindian News. With Indian rivers being severely polluted, interlinking them may actually increase these costs.
Also, with the widely recognised failure of the Ganga Action Plan, there is a danger that contaminants from the Gangetic basin might enter other basins and destroy their natural cleansing processes.
The new areas that will be river-fed after the introduction of the scheme may experience crop failures or routing due to alien compounds carried into their streams from the polluted Gangetic basin streams.
A government audit of the Ganga Action Plan in reported limited success in meeting effluent targets. Not all the cities reported how much effluent was being treated, and many continued to discharge raw sewage into the river.
Test audits of installed capacity indicated poor performance, and there were long delays in constructing planned treatment facilities. After 15 yr.
The environmental impact of this failure has been exacerbated by the removal of large quantities of irrigation water from the Ganges which offset any gains from effluent reductions.
The failure of the Ganga Action Plan to clean the sacred river is partly associated to our traditions and beliefs. The disposal of dead bodies, the immersion of idols and public bathing are the part of Hindu customs and rituals which are based on the notion that the sacred river leads to the path of salvation and under no circumstances its water can become impure.
Burning of dead bodies through wood, bursting of crackers during Diwali, putting thousands of tonnes of fuel wood under fire during Holi, immersion of Durga and Ganesh idols into rivers and seas etc.
These and many other rituals need rethinking and modification in the light of contemporary situations. National Geographic Society.
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Retrieved 10 May Rodda; Lucio Ubertini, eds. The Basis of Civilization: Water Science? International Association of Hydrological Science. The Times of India.
Uttar Pradesh General Knowledge. Upkar Prakashan. Rafiqul Islam Asian Survey. New Scientist. Government of India Ministry of Water Sources.
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Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Molur; B. Daniel, eds. Rev Fish Biol Fisheries. Retrieved 7 May Gharial Conservation Alliance.
Archived from the original on 14 April Retrieved 12 September Chelonian Research Monographs. Archived from the original on 2 September Turvey, Samuel T.
PLOS One. Bibcode : PLoSO Archived from the original on 23 January Retrieved 28 November Archived from the original PDF on 24 November International Journal of Water Resources Development.
May Environment International. Clean Ganga. Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 16 July Retrieved 3 May The Hindu.
Times of India. Archived from the original on 16 October BBC News. Retrieved 10 July Hindustan Times. Retrieved 5 April Live Mint.
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Bibcode : hwri. The Ganga, a scientific study. Northern Book Centre. Archived PDF from the original on 14 October Retrieved 13 October Monirul Qader The delta region experiences strong cyclonic storms both before the commencement of the monsoon season, from March to May, and at the end of it, from September to October.
Some of those storms result in much loss of life and the destruction of homes, crops, and livestock. One such storm, which occurred in November , was of catastrophic proportions, resulting in deaths of at least , and possibly as many as , people; another, in April , killed some , Between the Yamuna River at Delhi and the Bay of Bengal, a distance of nearly 1, miles 1, km , the elevation drops only some feet metres.
Altogether the Ganges-Brahmaputra plains extend over an area of , square miles , square km. The alluvial mantle of the plain, which in some places is more than 6, feet 1, metres thick, is possibly not more than 10, years old.
The Ganges-Yamuna area was once densely forested. Historical writings indicate that in the 16th and 17th centuries wild elephants, buffalo, bison, rhinoceroses, lions, and tigers were hunted there.
Most of the original natural vegetation has disappeared from the Ganges basin, and the land is now intensely cultivated to meet the needs of an ever-growing population.
Large wild animals are few, except for deer, boars, and wildcats and some wolves, jackals, and foxes. Only in the Sundarbans area of the delta are some Bengal tigers, crocodiles, and marsh deer still found.
In the Bengal area common fish include featherbacks Notopteridae family , barbs Cyprinidae , walking catfish , gouramis Anabantidae , and milkfish Chanidae.
The Ganges river dolphin —or susu Platanista gangetica , a nearly sightless cetacean with highly developed sonar capabilities—can be found throughout the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin, but it is considered endangered because of encroaching human activity.
Many varieties of birds are found, such as mynah birds, parrots, crows, kites, partridges, and fowls. In winter, ducks and snipes migrate south across the high Himalayas , settling in large numbers in water-covered areas.
Ethnically, the people of the Ganges basin are of mixed origin. In the west and centre of the basin they were originally descended from an early population—possibly speaking Dravidian or Austroasiatic languages—and were later joined by speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.
In historical times Turks, Mongols, Afghans, Persians, and Arabs came from the west and intermingled with them. To the east and south, especially in Bengal, peoples speaking Austroasiatic, Indo-Aryan, and Tibeto-Burman languages have joined the population over the centuries.
Europeans, arriving still later, did not settle or intermarry to any large extent. Historically the Gangetic Plain has constituted the heartland of Hindustan and its successive civilizations.
Kannauj on the Ganges, in central Uttar Pradesh north of Kanpur , was the capital of the feudal empire of Harsha , which covered most of northern India in the mid-7th century.
During the Muslim era, which began in the 12th century, Muslim rule extended not only over the plain but over all Bengal as well.
Dhaka and Murshidabad in the delta region were centres of Muslim power. The British, having founded Calcutta Kolkata on the banks of the Hugli River in the late 17th century, gradually expanded their dominion up the valley of the Ganges, reaching Delhi in the midth century.Auch die Schneefälle im Winter sind zurückgegangen. Wir verwenden Cookies, um unser Angebot für Sie zu please click for source. Meine Frau see more jetzt krank, ich hoffe nichts Ernstes. Asien ist mit einer Fläche https://gissalogotypen.se/serien-stream-app/wwwstreamcloudnet.php 45,1 Mio. Unterhalb der ersten Teilung im Deltabereich beziehen article source die Angaben entweder auf den Ganges bis zum Zusammenfluss mit der See more ca. Das Gangesdelta im engeren Sinne erstreckt sich ganges fluss dieser Mündung fast Kilometer weiter nach Westen bis zur Hugli-Mündung und wird im Wesentlichen von Gewässern durchströmt, die vom Ganges abzweigen. Retrieved 5 April Hindus also perform pinda pradanaa rite https://gissalogotypen.se/filme-stream-illegal/machtlos-englisch.php the dead, in which balls of rice and sesame seed are offered to the Ganges while the names of read more deceased relatives are recited. Fishing is also done in the Ganga waters. The Padma is joined by the Legion 2010 Riverthe largest distributary of the Brahmaputra. In the Vaishnava version of the myth, the heavenly waters were then a river called Vishnupadi Sanskrit : "from the foot of Vishnu". Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ganges River. Archived from the original on 23 January Darian, Steven G. Der Ganges ist der heilige Fluss der Hindus. An den Ufern des Flusses Ganges liegen zahlreiche Wallfahrtsorte. Das sind Städte mit einer besonderen. Meine Ganges River Tour: Über Kilometer ist der Ganges lang, der irgendwo in den Höhen des Himalaya entspringt und schließlich bis zum Indischen. Der Ganges hat für Millionen indischer Hindus eine tiefe religiöse und rituelle Bedeutung. Doch der Fluss ist vom Klimawandel bedroht. Der Fluss mündet schließlich im größten Flussdelta der Erde in den Golf von Bengalen. Der größte Teil des Flussdeltas liegt in Bangladesch. Der Ganges ist der.